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場所: 東京大学・駒場キャンパス18号館ホール
時間: 14:00から17:00
参加費: 無料、事前登録不要
URL: http://ecs.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp/activity/symposium/FY2015/Poster_FY2015.pdf



尊敬は、日本人にとってなじみ深い感情であり、親密なタテ関係のシグナルの一つであると言える。 しかしながら、これまでの心理学において、尊敬を感情として捉えて、その社会的機能を実証的に 検討するような研究はほとんどなされていなかった。 また、日本語には、敬愛や憧れ、畏怖、脱帽、といったように、尊敬に関わる感情語も数多くあり、 私たちが他者に感じる尊敬の気持ちは、複数あると言えると考えられる。 そこで、ここでは、そうした「尊敬関連感情」が、私たち日本人にとって どのような概念として捉えられているのか、尊敬関連感情はどのような行動を動機づけるのか、 どのような状況で発生しやすいのか、といった問題に関して、主に大学生を対象とした 質問紙調査研究の結果を紹介し、人と人とのコミュニケーションにおいて、 尊敬がいかなる機能を果たしうるのか、考えてみたい。



自閉スペクトラム症(ASD; Autism Spectrum Disorder)は、対人コミュニケーションの困難を主徴とする発達障害の一つである。 定型発達者が他者の顔や視線に特異的に注意を向ける一方、ASD者ではそのようなバイアスが弱く、顔情報処理も定型発達と異なる という知見がこれまで数多く報告されてきた。本発表では、アイコンタクトの確立や指差し、刺激呈示方法などの教示や簡単な 操作によって、ASD者も定型発達者と同様の反応を見せる可能性を示した研究を紹介する。



我々は他者に心を感じ、その心を動かすよう働きかけることによりコミュニケーションを行っている。 その一方で、我々が生きている世界は一人称的な主観的な世界であり、客観的に他者の心を観察することはできず、 他者に感じる心の大半はある意味、幻想と言えるのかもしれない。 本発表では、ロボットといった実際には心をもたない存在に対して我々が抱く心の幻想についての実験的事例を いくつか紹介することで、他者に感じる心がどれだけリアルに実在するのか議論をしたい。

場所: 駒場キャンパス16号館126、127室
時間: 17:30から19:30
会費: 一般3000円、学生1500円
申込: 2月24日までに中谷までご連絡下さい

 hnakatani@ecs.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp (@を半角にして下さい)


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KAIST 谷淳先生のセミナー
日時:12月25日 13:30ー


"Is deep learning really the way to achieve “deep mind”?"
Jun Tani, KAIST

Today, I would like to discuss how we could develop “deep mind” in artifacts. For this purpose, I overview my research topics of nearly two decades including predictive coding, mirroring action generation and recognition, and self-organization of spatio-temporal hierarchy which have been experimentally examined through various robotic experiments. By reviewing these research outcomes, I argue that “deep mind” could be achieved artificially by investigating the following issues seriously:
(1) Developmental and consolidative learning of multimodality of perceptual experiences in interactions with the physical real world which should be assisted through well-prepared long-term educational tutoring program.
(2) Investigation of robotic hardware which is durable for years of usages with continuous physical interactions.
(3) Serious examination on “subjective” experience of consciousness and freewill in robots as well as human in their interaction loop.
I welcome active debates with audiences on this topics on the day.

Time and Awareness: a symposium and a workshop
Date: Dec 18 (Fri)
Location: The University of Tokyo, Komaba Campus, Room #113, Building #3


Symposium (2pm - 4pm)

"Without it no music: Cognition, biology and the origins of musicality"
Henkjan Honing, University of Amsterdam

Certain cognitive capacities such as language and music are viewed as typically human. However, we still know very little about in how far other species share one or more of the basic mechanisms that constitute musicality. To reveal such common mechanisms requires employing a bottom-up perspective that focuses on the constituent capacities underlying musicality. Instead of asking which species are musical, we should ask how musicality works, what the necessary ingredients of musicality are, which of these are shared with other species and how they evolved. This type of approach has already yielded important insights in the domains of animal cognition and language evolution, and I am convinced it will bring major progress in the domain of musicality.
Honing, H. et al. (2015) Phil Trans B. doi:10.1098/rstb.2014.0088

"Ideomotor action: Neurophysiological basis and functional consequences "
Florian Waszak, Universite Paris Descartes Universite

Ideomotor theory posits that actions are selected on the basis of their effects in order to achieve a desired goal. I will present two experiments supporting the assertion that actions and their effects both become coded in ideomotor representations. One of these experiments studies, by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation, (i) how the motor system is activated by action-related sounds that are newly acquired and (ii) whether these sounds are represented with reference to the action goal or with respect to parameters related to the specific movements. The other experiment investigates by means of fMRI whether performing an action results in the activation of brain areas representing the sensory effects usually evoked by the action. Furthermore, I will present an experiment studying a common perceptual consequences of ideomotor actions: sensory attenuation. The experiment addresses the question of whether sensory attenuation is truly a perceptual phenomenon or rather due to a shift of the observer’s response criterion. Finally, I will try to bring the elements of these three experiments together to suggest a new account of sensory attenuation and other perceptual consequences of action effect anticipation.

Workshop (4:20pm - 6:40pm)

"Can birds perceive rhythmic patterns?"
Henkjan Honing, University of Amsterdam

In collaboration with the group of Carel ten Cate (Leiden University) I have done several studies probing rhythm perception in zebra finches and budgerigars. In these experiments birds were trained to distinguish a regular from an irregular pattern of beats and then tested on various tempo transformations of these stimuli. The preliminary results show that both species have a reduced discrimination after tempo transformations. This suggests that, as was found in earlier studies, they attended mainly to local temporal features of the stimuli, and not to their overall regularity. However, some individuals of both species showed an additional sensitivity to the more global pattern if some local features were left unchanged. In this presentation I’ll present our results and will discuss the consequences for theories of musicality.
Van der Aa, J., Honing, H., & ten Cate, C. (2015). The perception of regularity in an isochronous stimulus in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and humans. Behavioural Processes, 115, 37-45. doi:10.1016 j.beproc.2015.02.018
ten Cate, C., Spierings, M., Hubert, J. & Honing, H. (in preparation). Can birds perceive rhythmic patterns? A review and experiments on a songbird and a parrot species.

"Two-edged blade of musical training: virtuosity and dystonia"
Shinichi Furuya, Sophia University

Outstanding sensorimotor skills of musicians have attracted people in the world over centuries. Nimble, accurate, efficient, and dexterous movements are outcomes of neuromuscular adaptations endowed through early and long-term musical training. However, repetition of precise motor actions for years sometimes triggers movement disorders such as task-specific focal dystonia and tremor. The present talk focuses on three issues covering key aspects of musical training; movement reorganization at the musculoskeletal system possessing a large number of degrees of freedom through musical training, neuromuscular determinants of the inter-individual differences in motor skills among highly-skilled musicians, and novel neuro-rehabilitation normalizing maladaptive neuronal changes elicited by musician’s dystonia.

"Production of temporal intervals in a key-peck task of Bengalese finches"
Yoshimasa Seki, Aichi University

We trained Bengalese finches to peck a key 5 times along with an audio-visual metronomic cue presented successively by a constant interval. The birds showed a trend to peck the key after the stimulus onset, indicating the birds were waiting for the stimulus presentation and pecked the key following to the stimulus cue. Then, the birds learned to peck the key twice without the stimulus cue (or, with “imaginary stimuli”) following four pecks with the cue. The peck timings were distributed around the “stimulus onset” of the “imaginary stimuli”. The results may suggest that the birds may have to memorize the rhythmic pattern from the metronomic stimulus presentation and reproduce the similar timing intervals as the metronomic stimuli because the stimulus guidance was not available in the task. We tested the birds with various constant intervals: 600, 750, 900, 1050 milliseconds and the results were consistent among the intervals. Our finding is still inconclusive to prove the “vocal learning and rhythmic synchronization” hypothesis, because we have not examined the ability of non-vocal learning species yet. Nevertheless, the results are not inconsistent with the hypothesis.

"Rhythmical turn-taking and bonding in nonhuman animals"
Noriko Katsu, Osaka University

It is well known that music and dance promote inter-personal and group bonding in humans. Recent reports have suggested that reward and emotion arising from rhythmical movement have biological origins; rhythmical movement is an energy-saving and effective means for animals to transmit vocalizations to each other. I focus on spontaneous rhythmical vocalization and movement in nonhuman animals. I introduce an example of rhythmical vocalizations called “grunts” and “girneys” in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). These soft, short vocalizations are used in face-to-face interactions; monkeys often exchange these calls before affiliative interactions, such as grooming. I will discuss possible relationships between the rhythmical component of these vocalizations and social-bonding function.

"Perception and Production of time duration around 10 seconds by rats: a cascaded delay model"
Kazuo Okanoya, Tomohiro Tanaka, Ken’ichi Nixima, & Toru Kurotani Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Japan JST, ERATO, Okanoya Emotional Information Project, Saitama, Japan

Perception and production of time duration around 10 sec is crucial in animals’ survival yet this is the range which is not easy to handle by behavioral test. We trained rats to acquire a trace conditioning in which US occurred after 15 sec of the CS offset. We also trained rats to produce 15 seconds by pressing a lever in an operant box. Neurons in the granular retrosplenial cortex (GRS) of the posterior cingulate in rats exhibit a curious architecture. Neurons in the shallow layer of the GRS show extraordinary long latency for firing when stimulated electrically. These neurons make horizontal cascade. Input from sensory thalamus enters into the shallow layer and input from the hippocampus enters into a deep layer and integrated. We hypothesized that this neural architecture (cascaded delay) can enable time buffering. Lesioning the GRS abolished the trace conditioning suggesting that time buffering is in fact performed by this circuitry. To test the hypothesis, we are examining electrophysiological properties of GRS neurons in freely moving rats. (Supported by Kakenhi #26119509 and JST-ERATO)

行動生物学サイエンスカフェ2015 ー行動生物学への誘いー
日時:11月22日 17:00ー19:00


第1部: 話題提供(各10分+質問5分)




第2部: 各講演者を囲んでフリートーク(50分:途中で席の移動可)


Dissecting molecular mechanisms of vocal learning and spoken language.
日時:8月20日 14:00ー15:00


Dr. Erich D. Jarvis (Department of Neurobiology, Duke University)


日時:4月15日 17:45ー18:45


相馬 雅代 先生 (北海道大学 准教授)


 メスの配偶者選択の指標となる形質は,オスの何らかの質を反映したものであるはずだ,と予測されてきた.ところが,メスを「魅了する」歌がそもそもオスのどのような質と結びついているのかは近年まで不明であった.しかし,飼育下での繁殖状況の解析から,魅力的な歌を可能にするような歌神経系の発達は,発達期(歌学習時期)のストレスに起因する生育コンディションを反映しており,よいコンディションで育った「質」の高いオスほど持続時間が長く複雑な音響特性の歌をうたうことを明らかにできた(Soma et al. 2006).さらにその後の研究によって,ヒナの歌学習能力は,個体発生過程の最初期の要因である,母鳥の卵への投資(母性効果)からも影響をうけていることが明らかになった(Soma et al. 2009).ごく最近の母性効果研究からは,卵黄中の栄養物質やアンドロゲンホルモンが,発達を大きく左右することが明らかにされつつあり,母鳥が繁殖コンディションやつがい相手の質に応じて,子の形質を適応的に操作していることが示唆されている.このことが重要なのは,歌鳥研究のモデルとしてよく用いられるような,交配の自由が制限されてきた家禽種においても,「魅力的な」オスとつがった場合に卵への投資を増大させるような母性効果を通じて,間接的に性淘汰圧が作用してきた可能性を示唆するからである.実際,配偶相手の歌の質とメスの卵への投資を検討したところ,歌の持続時間が長く身体発達の良好なオスとつがったメスにおいて,卵への投資の増大することも確認することができた(Soma & Okanoya 2013).

 既に述べたように,歌形質が,他の多くの性淘汰形質と異なるのは,それが他者からの学習を通じて獲得されるものであるという点である.そのため,形質それ自体というより,その形質の獲得機序,すなわち発声学習を支える認知行動基盤に性淘汰が作用してきたと考えられる.たとえば,多くの鳴禽類オスは父親の歌をモデルとして学習するが,父歌の質がよくない場合,それをそのまま受け継いでも高い繁殖成功はのぞめないかもしれない.そこで子の側では,父歌が「魅力的でない」場合,それを補完するように他オスからも学習することが明らかになった(Soma et al. 2009).このように発声学習の進化には,学習を可能にする認知能力に対する性淘汰圧の存在と,それを通じて進行する文化進化のプロセスとが密接に関わっていると結論づけることができる.